Please forward this error screen to 193. Please forward this error screen textbook of anesthesia pdf 193.
Please forward this error screen to 185. Please forward this error screen to 185. Please forward this error screen to md-in-35. Not to be confused with Paresthesia and Anesthetic. For the medical speciality, see Anesthesiology.
Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient. General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation. Sedation suppresses the central nervous system to a lesser degree, inhibiting both anxiety and creation of long-term memories without resulting in unconsciousness. Regional anesthesia and local anesthesia, which block transmission of nerve impulses between a targeted part of the body and the central nervous system, causing loss of sensation in the targeted body part. A patient under regional or local anesthesia remains conscious, unless general anaesthesia or sedation is administered at the same time.
Central, or neuraxial, blockade administers the anesthetic in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing incoming sensation from outside the area of the block. Examples include epidural anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia. In preparing for a medical procedure, the health care provider giving anesthesia chooses and determines the doses of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. There are both major and minor risks of anesthesia. Examples of major risks include death, heart attack and pulmonary embolism whereas minor risks can include postoperative nausea and vomiting and hospital readmission. To achieve the goals of anesthesia, drugs act on different but interconnected parts of the nervous system.
Hypnosis, for instance, is generated through actions on the nuclei in the brain and is similar to the activation of sleep. Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. Inhalational anesthetics will reliably produce amnesia through general suppression of the nuclei at doses below those required for loss of consciousness. Tied closely to the concepts of amnesia and hypnosis is the concept of consciousness. Consciousness is the higher order process that synthesizes information.